• Prophylaxis and Therapy (delayed treatment)
  • (Deep) sequencing, mutation-specific PCR
  • Any route of drug administration possible (IV, oral, nebulizer, etc.)
  • Read outs include: clinical scoring (signs of disease, body temperature, lung function, etc), viral loads (by quantitative PCR and virus titration), gross pathology, histopathology, immune histochemistry, etc.


Antiviral Res. 2008 Nov;80(2):225-8.

Evaluation of intravenous zanamivir against experimental influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in cynomolgus macaques.

Stittelaar KJ, Tisdale M, van Amerongen G, van Lavieren RF, Pistoor F, Simon J, Osterhaus AD.


Nature. 2006 Feb 9;439(7077):745-8.

Antiviral treatment is more effective than smallpox vaccination upon lethal monkeypox virus infection.

Stittelaar KJ, Neyts J, Naesens L, van Amerongen G, van Lavieren RF, Holý A, De Clercq E, Niesters HG, Fries E, Maas C, Mulder PG, van der Zeijst BA, Osterhaus AD.