• Active- and passive immunization strategies
  • Read outs include: antibody responses, cell-mediated immune responses, clinical scoring (signs of disease, body temperature, lung function, etc), viral loads (by quantitative PCR and virus titration), gross pathology, histopathology, immune histochemistry, etc.


Vaccine. 2010 Nov 29;28(51):8125-31.

Feasibility of single-shot H5N1 influenza vaccine in ferrets, macaques and rabbits.

Heldens JG, Glansbeek HL, Hilgers LA, Haenen B, Stittelaar KJ, Osterhaus AD, van den Bosch JF.

J Virol. 2008 Mar;82(5):2565-9.

Vaccination of macaques with adjuvanted formalin-inactivated influenza A virus (H5N1) vaccines: protection against H5N1 challenge without disease enhancement.

Ruat C, Caillet C, Bidaut A, Simon J, Osterhaus AD.


Nature. 2006 Feb 9;439(7077):745-8.

Antiviral treatment is more effective than smallpox vaccination upon lethal monkeypox virus infection.

Stittelaar KJ, Neyts J, Naesens L, van Amerongen G, van Lavieren RF, Holý A, De Clercq E, Niesters HG, Fries E, Maas C, Mulder PG, van der Zeijst BA, Osterhaus AD.


J Virol. 2005 Jun;79(12):7845-51.

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus.

Stittelaar KJ, van Amerongen G, Kondova I, Kuiken T, van Lavieren RF, Pistoor FH, Niesters HG, van Doornum G, van der Zeijst BA, Mateo L, Chaplin PJ, Osterhaus AD.